Last winter, Natalie Vargas was nearing her mid-30s, eating fast food for lunch, drinking about nine cups of coffee a day, and feeling exhausted and sick to her stomach. But all of that changed in April 2015, when she began following a program she heard about on Facebook from a friend who had been struggling with similar issues.
My body started to feel better and better and better, Vargas, an aesthetician who lives in Newburgh, N.Y., told FoxNews.com.
Vargas, 34, credits the transformation to a $125/month weight loss and cleanse program she purchased through Plexus. The company is one of countless that uses multi-level marketing (MLM) a trend that experts say has helped fuel the U.S. dieting industrys growth to an estimated $64 billion value, the latest data available from research firm Marketdata Enterprises.
As New Years resolutions to hit the gym and eat healthy begin to wane, droves of Americans like Vargas will turn to similar programs that suggest their brand-specific supplements can help kick-start users metabolism, detoxify their systems and boost their energy.
Many people will learn about these programs through friends on social media who are then compensated by the company whose products theyre promoting the basis of MLM, or network marketing.
But due to flexible federal regulation of weight loss products and their often obscure ingredients, many registered dieticians question whether these programs offer more than what can be attained through a traditional healthy lifestyle. Others worry some may be Ponzi schemes that could leave participants not only sicker but also broker than when they started.
Can you really detox the body?
On Amazon, nearly 3,000 products are listed under the subcategory Detox & Cleanse.
The terms detox and cleanse have become so mainstream in the dieting world that those terms dont mean too much anymore, Heather Mangieri, spokeswoman for American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and a registered dietician nutritionist (RDN) based in Pittsburgh, told FoxNews.com.
But if you talk to anyone with a degree in dietetics from an accredited university like Mangieri, who received her master’s degree from the University of Pittsburgh or any biologist with similar credentials, theyll tell you the same thing: The body already cleanses itself. Thats what the liver, kidneys and colon do naturally.
If [cleanses] ever did the kind of thing theyre claiming to do, theyd kill you, Michael D. Gershon, a pathology and cell biology professor at Columbia University, told FoxNews.com.
Gershon, who studies the bowels relationship with the nervous system, said the bacterium in the bodys colon lining plays a fundamental role in digestion and nourishment. For example, cellulose, a component of fiber found in leafy greens like lettuce and spinach, cant be digested by the body without the delicate balance of bacterium that self-regulates in the colon.
When the colon absorbs toxins by way of exposure to a foodborne illness like salmonella or cholera, for instance the body becomes nauseated and vomits to try to rid itself of that toxin. In foods that are safe to eat, toxins arent absorbed. The body flushes them naturally.
One way to avoid a toxin is dont eat it, Gershon said.
Taking any supplement in excess has the potential to have the opposite of its desired effect that is, overloading on supplements may intoxicate the body, said Samantha Heller, a senior clinical nutritionist at New York Universitys Langone Medical Center.
Heller, a registered dietician for nearly two decades, referred to Nobel Prize winner Linus Paulings 1969 theory that vitamin C was a miracle supplement that could cure the common cold and extend peoples life spans. Following that belief, which has been debunked multiple times but is still popularly held today, people began taking too much vitamin C, causing the vitamin to transform from a disease-fighting antioxidant to a pro-oxidant, Heller said.
Our bodies are designed to deal with these vitamins in teams, Heller told FoxNews.com. [Vitamin C] works closely with vitamin E and selenium to balance the bodys system, so too much of one or the other can really knock it off. So in addition, you may be overloading your bodys ability to metabolize and detoxify these supplements, overwhelming your liver and kidneys.
We dont know what large doses of these supplements may do to our bodies, Heller said.
Can supplements help you lose weight?
Popular programs like Plexus, as well as Isagenix, AdvoCare and Arbonne, call for taking supplements, either in pill or powder form, and some version of fasting from whole foods.
Heller hasnt extensively studied the ingredients of products in those plans, but she said a quick review suggests many contain Stevia, a non-nutritive sweetener that research suggests may interfere with the gut-brain axis, increase sweet cravings and appetite, and shift the gut microbiome in an unfavorable direction. The microbiome refers to that crucial population of bacterium that Gershon described.
Heller said some of the products for these programs also contain laxatives.
Looking at the long lists of ingredients in these products, one wonders, Why not just eat real food, where Mother Nature has created the perfect balance of nutrients for the body? Heller said. These kinds of programs are a waste of time and money.
Isagenix, a company that has about 230,000 likes on Facebook, has a whole catalog of packages not only for weight loss, but for performance enhancement and energy, among other solutions. Its 30-Day Cleansing and Fat Burning System calls for, during two different periods throughout the cleanse, an elimination of full meals and taking a mix of shakes and supplements the company says may accelerate weight loss, as well as cleanse and flush the body.
AdvoCare, which has about 374,000 likes on Facebook, has a 24-Day Challenge that features a bundle of supplements to be taken during a 10-day cleanse phase to rid your body of waste, among other effects, and then offer appetite control and overall wellness during the following 14-day phase.
Whether its helpful at all to supplement a healthy, balanced diet with any vitamins and minerals in the first place is unclear, registered dieticians say.
Although sales of supplements have led to the growth of a multibillion dollar industry, the science behind whether theyre helpful or harmful or do nothing at all is fuzzy.
Studies on multivitamins, for example, have produced mixed results, with some research suggesting people who take them may be less inclined to follow a healthy diet thus increasing their risk of early death and other studies suggesting they may extend an individuals life span.
Some experts say individuals could benefit from taking a vitamin D supplement, Heller noted, but the popular belief that vitamin B12 can offer an energy boost is a myth because the body excretes the vitamin before fully absorbing it.
A big reason why companies can say their products may have certain benefits lies in terms laid out by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Those rules outline what dietary supplement companies and their ambassadors may imply during marketing, but they allow companies to clarify claims with asterisks that indicate their products may not work for everyone and that they are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Since 1994, when Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, supplementswhether sold individually or bundled in weight loss packages have been freed of regulation from the FDA.
It is the companys responsibility to make sure its products are safe and that any claims made about such products are true, Lynsday Meyer, an FDA spokeswoman, told FoxNews.com in an email. But just because you see a supplement product on a store shelf does not mean it is safe.
The FDA has received numerous reports of harm associated with the use of weight loss products, including increased blood pressure, heart palpitations (a pounding or racing heart), stroke, seizure and death, Meyer said. When safety issues are suspected, FDA must investigate and, when warranted, take steps to have these products removed from the market.
To Hellers knowledge, there is no supplement that has been scientifically proven to expedite weight loss.
There isnt any, Heller told FoxNews.com. [Weight loss] has to do with how much physical activity you do, and how much calories you burn and how much you take in, and its really as simple as that. But the quality of those calories counts.
Heller and Mangieri both said two-day cleanses that call for consuming only juice may help someone get into a proper mindset to jump-start their weight loss goal and, depending on the plan, leave them properly hydrated. But for any time beyond that, these types of juice cleanses can be dangerous.
If youre not consuming food that has some protein and some carbohydrates and some fats over a period of time, then you are scaring your body, Heller said. And so it launches into this urgent mode, and why would we want to do that to our bodies, which are dealing with enough difficult stuff as it is?
Mangieri said any safe program would include the basic foundation of a nutritious diet: fruits, vegetables, lean protein, whole grains and healthy fats.
Any program thats avoiding certain nutrients is a huge red flag also programs that claim that theyll help you lose weight in a certain amount of time, Mangieri told FoxNews.com.
Depending on a persons starting weight, generally speaking an individual can lose 2 pounds a week with a healthy eating plan and without supplements, she said. Thats 8 pounds a month, which is really good.”
Vargas, the Plexus participant, said she lost 8 pounds on the companys TRI-PLEX Combo, which consists of a powder to be mixed into water, plus two solid supplements. Now expecting her first child, she has continued taking the combo each month and said the healthy track Plexus has put her on helped her keep off the weight until her second trimester of pregnancy. She also credited the program with helping her conceive, which shed had trouble doing prior.
Vargas cleared the TRI-PLEX Combo with her OB-GYN and communicates on a private Facebook page with about 10,000 other women who are pregnant or trying to conceive while taking Plexus products. She said shes working on becoming an ambassador for the program by sharing personal testimonials with her friends in hopes of recruiting new participants on Facebook. With that rank, shell get the TRI-PLEX Combo for $109 a month instead of $124. Shell have to make that $109 monthly quota, either through sales to other people or with her own purchases of Plexus products.